Country Profile

Mongolia is a landlocked country, located in East and Central Asia. With a population of about 2.7 million and a population density of only 1.5 people per square kilometer, Mongolia is one of the worlds most sparsely inhabited countries. Its landlocked territory relies heavily on the export markets of China in the South and Russia to the North. Roughly half of Mongolia’s population lives in rural areas partly settled and partly as nomads. Livestock production and herding continues to be the main source of livelihood for rural people.

Until the 1990’s, there was virtually no poverty in the country as government and rural collectives ensured the basic supply of goods and services to the population. Privatization of state farms and industries has led to high levels of unemployment. Currently, every third person in Mongolia is poor, a number that is increasing as the income gap widens.

Country Facts

Poverty Headcount Ratio at National Poverty line (percent of pop) 36.1% (2002)
Life Expectancy at Birth, total (years) 97% (2008)
Literacy Rate, adult total (percent of people aged 15 and above) 97% (2008)
External Debt Stocks (percent of GNI) 55.8% (2009)
capital (GNI per current US$) $1,630 (2009)
GDP annual growth (percent) -1.6% (2009)
Inflation Consumer Prices (annual percent) 6.2% (2009)
Population, total/td>

Rural Population 1,139,434
Net ODA Received (percent of central government expenditure) 17.8% (2008)


CSO Case Stories

Experiences of a ‘Shadow Report’ in the Making

Long interviews, feverish desk research, writing, consolidation, verification of information, it is all well under way with the ‘Shadow Report’ taking shape in many countries around the world. Mongolia is one of those countries and a deeper look reveals it to be a great example of the difficulties, challenges and opportunities that arise from this task.

CSO Platforms

CSO Coordination Group (CCG)

Center for Human Rights and Development (CHRD)
Room 310, Tsetsee-Gun Management University, Chingeltei district, Sukhbaatar Street -6, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel/Fax: 976-11325721

Contact Person:
Urna Gombosuren

News & Resources

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